Turkish Cotton: Manufacturing Process


Our products are produced in Buldan, in the Denizli province in Turkey. The district of Buldan is famous for its ancient craft of weaving which is dating back to the 14th century.. It has changed little over the ages, offering a rare glimpse into the past. Buldan was once located on a major trade route and produced gorgeous fabrics that were used to make shawls and kaftans for sultans of Ottoman Empire. Some of these can be seen in Topkapi Palace in Istanbul.

Many of these traditional Buldan homes still function as weaving workshops. Today, there are 3000 weaving machines, 30 handlooms and 1250 embroidery machines in Buldan. The cotton used in weaving Buldan fabric comes from the Meander River meadow. It is embroidered with silk thread dyed with natural dyes. Wool from local sheep is also used in the weaving.

Whichever house you visit in Buldan, you first hear the sound of a song, and then notice a callused hand or one stained with henna. You find yourself in an age-old story which has continued unchanged for centuries. It is the story of Buldan cloth, each thread of which is the product of hard work and methods which have been passed down from father to son and mother to daughter forcountless generations. For the inhabitants of the town of Buldan in the western Turkish province of Denizli, weaving is a way of life. The town's history is closely associated with the fabrics woven here. The production of Buldan fabric is still done in workbenches not in automatic machines. The products are sewed by the women living in Buldan not in factories. So the same products can differ from hand by hand with unique personal character.


The pestemal (pesh-te-mal) is a Turkish word for a flat woven fabric that is traditionally used in the hamam (or Turkish Bath) as a towel. The pestemal is a large thin and highly absorbent towel which were historically used in Turkey as part of the Turkish bath ritual.


Throughout history this Turkish towel was produced by weaving on hand looms by craftsmen in Turkey's eastern Black Sea and Aegean regions. Our products are not factory-made. All the pestemals are produced by traditional methods in a respectful manner to its origin, woven on hand looms and vegetable dye is used.

The pestemal tradition, which has stood the test of time and survives today with its delicate texture, high absorbency, fast drying and lightness. With its timeless designs combining natural fibers such as high-quality organic cotton and linen using state-of-the-art looms, efil efil -Turkish Cotton- breathes new life into pestemals and expands their areas of use. Emerging from the Turkish bath ritual, the pestemal appears in bathrooms, saunas, pools, gyms and at the beach. It also becomes an essential part of your journeys, thanks to its space-saving delicate texture.


Our pestemals, with their harmonized designs and colors, are also appreciated for their elegance that brings the ease of use of a pestemal anywhere that people and water come together. In addition to their natural color palette reflecting simplicity and purity, pestemals in trendy cheerful colors can also be used as a pareo, dress or scarf. Reviving the pestemal with thousands of years of weaving culture and experience,

efil efil -Turkish Cotton- appeals to our senses and emotions with its unique and elegant designs.


Always keep one pestemal inside your bag, you can use it as a towel on the beach, shawl when you feel cold, as a pique on your bed, in baby care or as a decorative cover on your table and on your sofas.

Cashmere - Pashmina

"Pashmina" is the softest and the finest natural insulating fiber in the world. It is extracted from the inner coats of the hardy little mountain goats (capra hircus) locally called "Chyangra", which live at the altitude above 3000 mtrs in the Himalayas. Such wonderful and gossamer properties of "Pashmina" has popularized it as the "Diamond Fibre". The outer layer fibres of "Chyangra" are discarded as they are comparatively thicker & coarser. Thus only the inner layer fibres measuring under 16.5 microns are specified for use as "Pashmina". These extraordinary qualities of Pashmina fibres have encouraged weavers to produce various types of wraps for warmness. The Fur combing process is performed every spring without harming the goats. Pashmina fibres thus obtained are spun into thin yam which is woven to make different types of pashmina products like blankets, shawls, stoles, scarves as well as pullovers, cardigans, etc. This exquisite craftsmanship of Nepalese weavers has established "Nepalese Pashmina" worldwide as the most precious possession. In ancient times "Pashmina" was used in unblended form but later combinations with silk, cotton etc., came in practice. In due course of time and after long years of experience and experiments, Pashmina yarn and silk yarn were combined to get better fibre-strength, durability, colour-pleasantness and finish which has now become most popular all over world and recognized as "Nepalese Pashmina".


The origin of Pashmina dates back to ancient civilization. Those days it was renowned as the " Fibre for royals & emperors." In Nepal also it has been traced back to the prehistoric times (or the time of Mahabharat). People living in the high mountains discovered the unique and wonderful properties of "Pashmina". They developed a very delicate and skillful pashmina extraction method where the goats are not harmed and more fibres can be collected regularly every spring from the same goat for many years. They also teamed to spun the fibers into fine yam and then weave it to get an extraordinarily soft and warm fabric. This exquisite ad of weaving was passed on from one generation to another and to the present times as well. The popularity of Pashmina encouraged entrepreneurs for product diversification and as such various kinds of pashmina products like shawls, stoles, blanket, scarves, sweaters, cardigans etc. are developed and marketed. Nepal is famous for hand woven Pashmina products all over the world. 

Cashmere - Pashmina: Manufacturing Process

Warping: Warping is the process of rolling silk yarn horizontal on a bean. There warping is usually done according to the width of the shawl you would like to make.


Drafting: This is the process of inserting the silk yarn in the nylon netting to form different patterns on the shawls. There are certain ways in which this can be done as if you insert the silk yarn in the wrong way the yarn will not get locked which will ruin the shawl.


Weaving: This is the process of locking the warp(the silk yarn) with the weft(pashmina yarn). This is done with the help of a hand loom where the silk yarn is places horizontally and the pashmina is the filling.


Mending: This is the process of mending the shawls which is weaved. In this process the shawls are checked for damage. The places where the threads are missing the weavers with the help of needle and pashmina yarn fill the spaces where the threads are missing.


Knotting: This process takes place after the shawl has been weaved. In this process the silk/pashmina yarn that is left without it being weaved is tied into knots known as fringes.


Crushing: This is the process of crushing the shawls in order to give the shawls a softer feeling. The shawls are usually crushed for about 10-15 minutes each. This help to bring the soft feeling to the shawls.


Washing: The shawls are washed after it is finished in order to wash away the odour and allow the shrinkage of the shawls to prevent it from damage later. It is also done to remove the stains, which it could have collected during the process of making/weaving the shawls.


Dyeing: This is the process of giving the shawl the color the customers want the shawl to have. In this process the shawls are dyed in big vessels . The shawls have to be constantly stirred in order to give the shawls uniform color. The purpose of dyeing is to produce economically a uniform shade (single shade or mixed shade) without any variation in tone or depth. In order to fulfill this purpose, dyeing is carried out in an machine using imported dyestuffs and chemicals. The specialty of our dyeing is that the dyed materials are 100% colorfast and dyes chemicals used in dyeing are totally azo free.


Inspection: Final inspection of the finished products is carried out to ensure no faults.